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Glossary
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A

air dry shed The part of a sawmill where the stacks made in the green chain are left to dry for 2 weeks to 3 months.

alates part of the termite family, winged reproductives.
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B

band saw a saw made of a metal band with teeth on the edges that cuts logs into boards and timbers. Used in sawmill.

bark the stuff on the outside of wood. Bark is not actually wood! Its main job is to protect the wood.
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C

cambium a part of wood anatomy. Located between the phloem and the wood, usually only one cell thick. Produces new phloem on the outside and new wood on the inside

cants large timbers.

carriage automatically moves a log in a sawmill into the head saw that cuts boards

chip mills a factory where wood chips are made for turning into paper

clipped the process of cutting sheets of veneer to the correct length and width to make plywood. Occurs in the sawmill.

concentric a group of circles, each inside the others - like tree rings

crown the branches of a tree
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D

dealates part of the termite family, reproductives which have lost their wings.

debarker deck the part of the sawmill where bark is removed

deciduous or a hardwood tree loses its foliage year round - like a maple!

drums where newly processed, damp paper is rolled to dry.

dry kilns where the stacks made in the green chain go after drying in the air dry shed. The dry kilns dry the boards to a moisture level close to what the final moisture level will be, a process which takes 1 - 3 weeks to complete. Dry kilns are found in sawmills.
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E

earlywood the lighter part of a growth ring which is formed in the spring.

edge the process of cutting boards to width and trimmed to length; occurs at a sawmill.

edger saw cuts round edges off boards. Edger saws are used in sawmills.

evergreen or a softwood tree, keeps its foliage in the winter - like a pine!
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F

fascicle the group of needles (like pine needles) attached to the same place on the stem is called a fascicle

fibers the stuff xylem, or wood, is made from; fibers are cells that look and act like straws.

foliage the leaves or needles on a tree
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G

galleries channels made by termites and other insects as they eat their way through wood - the place where they lay their eggs.

gang saws cuts the large timbers into boards. Gang saws are used in sawmills.

grade a way to measure the quality or suitability (how good is it?) of a board or lumber

graded deciding what grade the board or lumber gets

grain formed because of the way wood grows. Wood fibers grow in the direction of the grain, this is along the length of the tree stem.

green chain the place at the sawmill where wood is sorted and stacked prior to drying

growth rings the dark and light colored rings visible in a cross section of wood. One dark and one light ring combined is equal to one year of growth for the tree.
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H

hardwood or a deciduous tree, loses its foliage in the winter - like a maple!

heartwood the dark, inner region of wood. Heartwood is dead wood that used to be living sapwood. Its main job is to provide support to a tree, but the chemicals that accumulate in it help protect wood from insect attacks and decay.

hydroelectric power energy created from water flow, a natural renewable resource.
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K

knots branches that a tree has grown around or over.
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L

latewood the darker part of a growth ring which is formed in the summer.

leaves the part of trees that grows on the branches and act as the photosynthesis factory that turns sunlight into food for the tree.

lobes the part of a leaf that sticks out, like your ear lobe!

log loader/turner a machine found in sawmills that loads and turns the logs on the carriage

log yard the place in a sawmill where logs are stored before they are cut into lumber.

lumber another word for boards. Long flat thin pieces cut directly from the tree.
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M

manage Take care of, as in manage natural renewable resources.

microorganism a really small living thing. The microorganism in termites' bellies allow them to digest wood fibers!

mill residue pieces of wood left over from wood processing such as sawdust, wood chips, and wood shavings.

molts shedding of skin, hair, horns, etc. prior to replacement by a new growth, like termites, reptiles and birds
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N

needles softwood trees have leaves that are called needles. Like leaves on hardwood trees, needles perform photosynthesis, which turns sunlight into food for the tree.

nonrenewable resource a resource that will eventually run out, like gasoline or oil.

nymphs part of the termite family; young soldiers. It takes two molts for a nymph to change into a soldier.
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P

pallets made from lumber, pallets are used to ship boxes that contain all kinds of things that we use every day.

phloem also known as "inner bark". It is located just inside the outer bark. Its purpose is to carry sugar from the leaves at the top of the tree to the roots and other parts of the tree.

photosynthesis the process of turning sunlight into sugar, used by trees and other plants.

primary breakdown the process in a sawmill where the log is positioned on a moving carriage and passed through a single-edge band saw

processed modified. Wood is often processed so it can be used to make wood products such as paper, particleboard, and plywood.

pulp wood fibers (cells) that have broken apart or separated.
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Q

queen the largest member of the termite family, the queen can be up to 10 cm in length. Her sole job is to lay thousands eggs for the reproductives to fertilize and care for.
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R

rays move sap (sugar water) to the center parts of the tree. Sometimes visible to the unaided eye, though magnification is often needed. Rays can cause colored patterns in wood, such as dark or light flecks.

renewable natural resource something that comes from nature, is valuable to people, and can continually be restored.

reproductives part of the termite family. Reproductives are responsible for starting the family. Winged reproductives are called alates, reproductives that lose their wings are called dealates.

resin a sticky liquid in softwoods.

resin canals tunnels in pine, Douglas-fir, larch, and spruce trees that contain a sticky liquid called resin - this helps the tree heal wounds

roots the part of the tree that is underground.
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S

sapwood the lighter, outer region of wood. Sapwood is living wood; its main job is to carry water from the roots to other parts of the tree.

sawmill the place where trees are processed into lumber.

sawmill residue the tree-pieces leftover after trees are processed at sawmills. like edges, slabs, trimmings, and bark.

scanning electron microscope a tool that allows us to see really small things at very high magnification, sometimes up to 2000 times larger

secondary breakdown the process that occurs in a sawmill where the boards are cut to width, and trimmed to length.

seedling a baby tree

sheets as in sheets of plywood. Plywood is formed into big flat sheets that are larger than boards and easier to handle.

shelter tubes tunnels built by termites, made out of soil materials, mixed with saliva and fecal matter.

sinuses the opposite of a lobe, the sinus is the part of a leaf that dips toward the center.

slurry a mixture of something with water. A wood pulp slurry is wood pulp and water.

social insects insects, like termites, that live in families which all work together for survival

softwood or an evergreen tree, keeps its foliage year round - like a pine!

solar power sunlight converted into energy that we can use, a natural renewable resource.

soldiers part of the termite family. Soldiers provide the defenses for termite colonies.

stiffness hard to bend

stone grinder a tool which grinds wood into pulp

swarm a large number of termites leaving their home to start a new colony somewhere else
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T

talley sheets where the grade and volume of each board is recorded

tree a very large plant that is at least 20 feet tall, it has only one main trunk (stem) that grows in circumference (around) every year. The stem is persistent (it does not die back), and the stem lives for many, many years. The stem also has a vascular system - it has cells that look and act like straws

trimmer saws trim edged boards to the correct length

trunk the part of the tree above the ground but below the branches - the STEM. It holds up the crown
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V

veneer thin layers of wood peeled from tree trunkss.

vessels found only in hardwoods, vessels are large, usually hollow cells that move water and minerals from the leaves to the tree stem
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W

wood scientifically called xylem. It's the stuff trees are mostly made of

wood the stuff that trees are mostly made of. Wood lies beneath the bark of a tree. The technical name for wood is xylem. Wood is made up of fibers (cells that look and act like straws).

workers part of the termite family. Workers do all the labor in a termite family, like feeding the others, digging tunnels, and building and repairing nests.
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X

xylem the scientific name for wood. Xylem is made up hollow fibers (cells) whose main job is to transport water from the roots to other parts of the tree.
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